Fish Health - Koi Herpes Virus (KHV or CY-HV1)

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August 2010 - DEFRA have announced that four fish farms have been infected. The symptoms are sunken eyes, gill damage and sloughing mucus

May 2010 - We have been notified by CEFAS that every region in the British Isles now has K.H.V.

K.H.V. & S.V.C. Outbreaks 2010UK KHV & SVC map

Boston, Lincs 2 (S) #
Essex 3 (S) #
Hampshire 1 #
London 4 (S) #
Midleands 5 (3C, 2S) #
Wales 6 (2 C, 4S) #
West Country 4 (1C, 3S) #
Yorkshire 2 (S) #

The U.S.A. now has massive problems with this virus from Mexico to outhern Canada, involves all us states now.

S = Suspected
C = Confirmed
# = K.H.V.
* = S.V.C..

K.H.V. & S.V.C. Outbreaks 2009

UK KHV & SVC mapBristol 5 #
Cambridgeshire 2 #
Cornwall 3 #
Derbyshire 3 #
Hampshire 4#
Hereford 2#
Kent 2 #
Leicestershire 4 #
Linconshire* 4 #
London area 7 #
London (S) 4 #
Midlands 8 #
Northampton 3 #
Norfolk 3 #
Notts 6 #
Oxford 5 #
Scotland 2 #
Somerset 3 #
Staffordshire 2 #
Sussex 5#
Yorkshire 6 #
Warwickshire 3 #
West Country 8 #
Wales 6 #

#= K.H.V.
*= S.V.C..

* Includes Wagtail Fishery, Grantham, Lincolnshire

The outbreak in Shalmsford Street in Kent this autumn (confirmed 8th Oct 2009 by CEFAS) is particularly worrying as the water temperature has normally dropped by this time. Perhaps the Indian Summer is keeping waters warmer.

16 further outbreaks have been added to the list this October, all down to the warmer weather late this year. By rights, these should be the last this year.

When your koi are suffering and you've been to the garden centre and poured everything in but mother ruin, and still your fish are getting worse, and you suspect K.H.V, the then following:

50% water change
add salt at 3lb or 1/2Kg per 100 gallons = 30lb or 15Kg per 1000 gallon,
Let's say your pond is 2000gal break the dose up into 4 equal doses of 15lb per 8 hours until the whole 60lb is in.

But lets say your fish look like they will not last much longer - they are hanging around the filter outlet or clamped up on the bottom - then add your dose in 2 halves 4 hours apart,

and if they are really ill, then add it all at once - I have done this many times. It does make their eyes meet, but it saves your fish.

However: if after the full dose has been in for 48hrs and your fish are no better then you must think the worst. There are two sides to this coin - poison or K.H.V.

You will have read in the fish mags and on the web about salt. I was salting fish before half these so called fish experts where born, Salt has saved more koi than even Supaverm, which works even better with salt. I was reading a article some time ago in a fish mag which said "do not use salt" - the so-called expert didn't have a koi pond and didn't keep fish! It would be like me going down to Sellafield and telling them what they are doing wrong!

50% of what you read in these mags is garbage - people taking quotes from books which are reprints from the fifties, when malachite green was the golden bullet - (it's still first class for white spot)

Once you have past the 48 hours and there is no improvement whatsoever, then think about having a fish tested for khv and have your water tested for man made contaminates.

sepsis fishThis is the picture you need to see. This is just what K.H.V. looks like as the virus starts its gruesome work. This fish has I suspect, been infected for some time and the stress of moving bagging etc brought the virus live. (Tests were positive on this fish and 3 of the original stock) This is a non-quarantined fish added to a system which has been without new stock for 4 years. The best bit is that it was bought from an auction for pennies. The symptoms started to show within 5 days of the new fish being added As I said at the start, this picture says it all.

Summer 2009

A mass die-off of carp at lake Mohave in Arizona U.S.A. Over 100.000 dead carp and still many arriving dying at its shore. Any that survive will be carriers for life.

All tests are positive. And they are still allowing anglers to fish lake! No wonder this virus is spreading! All you hear from the states is that they will find a cure, and are asking for donation for research. Money thrown away, they just don't get it - lake Mohave should have been shut down straight away. They are asking anglers to fish for other species! Do they have a note on the hook "no carp thank you". Mind you, knowing the yanks as I do, I am not surprised. Anglers leave the lake and fish elsewhere with contaminated tackle and clothing.

Here's a story from Canada. Also in the States this is getting so common I am dealing with over 30 cases via email at the moment
MessageFrom: Brent & Andrea
To: 'Fishhelpline'
Subject: RE: Sick Koi

Hi Lawrence, thanks so much for helping us out in this matter. I t is very
depressing as you well know. You were absolutely correct, the results from the
Provincial Government lab came in today positive for KHV 3. Now the quandary
begins, ‘depopulate’ our 10 year old friends who just may survive, or just let
them die out in peace....I guess it is now a waiting game.

Andrea & Brent
Chilliwack, Canada
From: Fishhelpline
To: 'Brent & Andrea'
Subject: RE: Sick Koi

hi contact with a virus live fish is in minutes not hours, for contamination of
other stock. sorry to say i am 99.9% sure you have k.h.v. in fact i would work
on the assumption any way. problem you have k.h.v is a water virus that infects
fish not the other way round, so once infected fish enters your water your water
becomes live , this is what a lot of fish keepers do not under stand regards

Please note that a response to an ailment where the fish has not been visually
inspected by me, must be regarded as a probable cause, and not a final diagnosis
thank you. lawrence belshaw
-----Original Message-----
From: Brent & Andrea
To: 'Fishhelpline'
Subject: RE: Sick Koi
Hi Lawrence, I didn’t see anything under the scope, but i did scrapings off of
a dead specimen. I will try scrapings from a live one today... The retailer
results came in from the lab – KHV positive. Our koi were only exposed short –
term, and started dying within a few weeks of introduction of the ‘new’ fish –
cold it possibly have been this in such a short incubation period? I’m hoping
against hope....
Andrea & Brent

From: Fishhelpline
To: 'Brent & Andrea'
Subject: RE: Sick Koi

hi this could be gill fluke or even whitspot both have these symptoms. and so
does k.h.v your scope would pick up both infection as both are visible at
about 50x. let me know what you find regards lawrence

Please note that a response to an ailment where the fish has not been visually
inspected by me, must be regarded as a probable cause, and not a final
diagnosis thank you. lawrence belshaw
-----Original Message-----
From: Brent & Andrea
To: 'Fishhelpline'
Subject: RE: Sick Koi
Hi Lawrence, thank you for your help in this.
One fish was added May 29, and four more added June 4. Prior to that, it
has been 2 years ago (even perhaps 3, as they spawned last year). The
problem was fist noticed on June 18, 3 weeks after the first fish was
introduced, 2 weeks after more were introduced.

Water test results are:
pH - 7.6
NO3 - 0
NO2 - 0
NH4 - 0
Salt - .08% (under 1%) -

I have access to compound and dissecting microscopes from work.

The two fish pictured have died, so I can’t send pictures of them (promptly
removed and buried). Attached are some photos of a smaller (6") specimen
that died this am. Note the frayed tail, and there appears to be some green
‘gunk’ in the gills.....

On the two that died the other day, the green ‘slime’ had covered the body
(could this be ‘cotton’ and just discoloured by algae & the suspended
particulates in the water?), and fins began to look somewhat frayed - not
too bad. Large koi are now all staying by the waterfalls (low oxygen from
gill infections?). We have had cool weather this past few weeks - down to 7
degrees Celsius last night, warming up in the day - currently pond temp is
28 degrees Celsius, as I have added a pond de-icer in the waterfall stream .

Other symptoms include some flashing/jumping, refusing food, and clamped
fins. one hanging head down with tail near surface (this one died this am -
a smaller one - see attachment), and one appears to have a little bloating o
n just one side. But not all of them are displaying symptoms - some appear
to be just fine.

When I contacted the retailer yesterday, they informed me that they were
told their fish may have a virus, and turned their temperatures up to 87
degrees Fahrenheit, after which they haven’ t lost anymore. This would be
difficult for me to do.

Thanks again for your time.

Andrea & Brent
Chilliwack, BC

From: Fishhelpline
To: 'Brent & Andrea'
Subject: RE: Sick Koi

hi Andréa, send more pictures full pics and of the whole fish. how long has
it been since you have added new fish apart from the last batch. how long
did it take after new fish where added for problem to start. send me your
water test results. bring your salt down to 3%. and add no more treatments.
have you a microscope or access to one? regards lawrence

Please note that a response to an ailment where the fish has not been
visually inspected by me, must be regarded as a probable cause, and not a
final diagnosis thank you. lawrence belshaw
-----Original Message-----
From: Brent & Andrea
Subject: Sick Koi
Dear Sir/Madam,
Greetings from across the pond. I am writing you from Chilliwack, British
Columbia, and I was hoping you might be able to tell from the attached
photos if this is possibly KHV. We have lost 2 large specimens last night,
and a third is on the way. Another is swimming head down, and the rest
look fine.....Large specimens, 10 years old. This occurred after the
introduction of 5 new 4’ koi, which promptly passed. Salting is at 0.06%,
and currently using Interpets’ Anti bacterial and Fungal medication (2nd
day)to help alleviate these rotting, fungal like infections. Is there
anything that can be done for KHV if you fell this may indeed be it?
ANY advice would be greatly appreciated.
Brent Bailey
Chilliwack, British Columbia
June 2009 Derby.
Awaiting D.N.A. test results from 30 fish. 11 already dead, 5 more to follow 26" to 8".


May 2009 Southern London.
These are classic pictures e.g. sunken eyes and the fish appears to be rotting away.
Once seen never forgotten.


These are from a heated pond in January 2009.
Fish with KHV Fish with KHV

Fish with KHV

K.H.V. Outbreaks 2008

Americas suspected total= s.v.c 22000 k.h.v 40000 cases
Europe suspected cases. s.v.c 3500. k.h.v 12800.
Asia inc Japan, Israel and South Africa - numbers are not available - myself I think it's more than all the above together, but nobody seems to know - put it this way nobody wants to want admit it.
UK - no recorded/reported cases of S.V.C

Birmingham 2
Cambridge 4
Derby 8 (inc. Press Reservoir, Ashover)
East Sussex (Moor Hall Pools, Battle and surrounding water)
Essex 3 (Including the RHS garden pond)
Herts (Colne River valley)
Kent 4
London and Greater London area 3
Newcastle 2
Nottinhghamshire 5
Leicestershire 3
Lincolnshire 4
Solihull (Earls Wood Lake )
Somerset 1; (Pavyotts, Mill farm, Yeoville)
South East 10
South West 3
West Midlands (Mereside pools)
Yorkshire 7

Wales 6
Ireland 2
Scotland 4
France 14
Holland 6

Berkshire * = 1 (November)
Cambridge = 1 (August)
Essex = 3 (August)
Kent = 2 (September)
London = 1
Sussex = 1
W Midlands = 3 (September)
Yorkshire = 1 (August)

* The water temperature was 15.9oC, the lowest recorded with chronic infection and mass mortalities. The samples were taken on 9/10/2007.

UK map

Most of these cases did not need confirming - just watched all the fish die. I feel many tears for the owners. I now only approach new pond in a sterile paper suit and foot wear cover and now use no plastic. All nets are destroyed once used. I do not sterilize them - it's not worth the risk. All microscope tools inc slides are binned after use. My mobile lab is taken to our local hand-wash who are used to me now, and do my under the wheel arches, all my tyres treads, and even the roof. The van looks new most of the time as they keep it so clean for me.

A third of all cases are where there are no new fish added - the virus is just waiting for the right stress level. You must watch what you buy.

K.H.V. Outbreak in November

See the news page

As from 6th April 2007 it is now obligatory to notify suspicion of K.H.V disease.

KHV fishThis is classic K.H.V. A fish rotting away. One of the worst cases I've seen. This fish was still alive when the picture was taken.

I haven't taken a picture of the complete pond full, as the lady owner was too distressed to have a record of this disaster. The pond of 30 fish ranging from 15-30inches. One new fish was added in September - said to have been quarantined using heat. Well, heat or not, it wiped out the whole stock. I felt for this lady, she had done everything by the book (that particular book is now out of date, including having a heated system running at 20c), so she thought she knew her fish were K.H.V. free, as she had not added a new fish for two years.

I first thought it might be an immune syndrome affect with muiltifinnis (white spot), but upon closer inspection my thoughts went to K.H.V. and when the lab results arrived they were positive for K.H.V.

This is a classic case - fishes showing mass infection of trichodina which is often the case when K.H.V. is present

The latest on the KHV vaccine:

13th March 2007

Dear Mr Belshaw

Thank you for your recent enquiry to the Cefas Fish Health Inspectorate about a vaccine for Koi Herpesvirus (KHV). Your enquiry was passed to me for reply.

Due to the dramatic consequences that KHV had on aquaculture in Israel, fish farming companies affected by the disease have over a number of years developed strategies to mitigate the impact of infection. Initially work was undertaken on developing natural immunity by challenging populations of fish with KHV and manipulating water temperatures to facilitate an immune response. However research has subsequently moved on and an Israeli company called Kovax has developed an attenuated vaccine against KHV. Currently this vaccine has a temporary market authorisation in Israel and I believe it is being used to protect farmed fish from infection.

However the vaccine is not authorised for use in the UK (nor the EU) as it has not been through the thorough and rigorous regulatory process required before veterinary medicines can be placed on the market. In UK the Veterinary Medicines Directorate are responsible for the authorisation of veterinary medicines.

Kevin Denham
Senior Fish Health Inspector

Kovax - the KHV vaccine manufacturer's web site can be found at:

Information on Hazorea Aquatics' Koi Breeding Project

The Koi Herpes Virus (KHV) has been active in Koi and carp fish farms in Israel since 1998. It is believed the disease was imported to Israel in broodstock and equipment that came from a defunct Koi breeding farm in the UK that was infected by KHV in 1996. KHV is suspected to have existed before 1998 in East Europe, the US and Japan, and since then in Koi facilities around the world. In general Israeli farms and authorities have co-operated with health authorities world wide in an effort to contain the spread of the virus as well as to share any and all information regarding the virus and possible methods of control or treatment. Paradoxically, it has been this openness and willingness to share information (as opposed to farms in some other countries that have tried to conceal virus infections), that has fuelled rumours that the virus started in Israel, or that Israeli farms are responsible for it's propagation. The Hazorea farm in Israel was infected by KHV in April 2001, and the last instance of KHV at Hazorea was recorded in June 2001.
After extensive research and experimentation, some farms in Israel (but not Hazorea) have developed a method for "immunization" of Koi. The method is based on infecting the Koi with an attenuated virus "vaccine" in a controlled environment. There is no documented evidence to date that fish that have been "immunized" in this way have demonstrated symptoms of KHV again or that they are carriers of the virus. However, the developers of the vaccine are uncertain regarding it's long-term effects.

Many professional and ministry officials believe that it is still uncertain if the live attenuated virus will remain non-pathogenic in "immunized" fish for long periods of time. Also, and more importantly the spread of fish vaccinated or "immunized" with attenuated virus might introduce large numbers of virus carriers that will seriously hamper future efforts to monitor or eradicate the disease. It should also be noted that since it's outbreak and spread, there is a growing certainty amongst researchers and veterinarians that other forms of KHV already exist, exhibiting slightly different symptoms and pathology. This may mean that the original strain of virus has mutated and that any so-called immunization process or tested vaccine may prove in future to be ineffective with regards to new and developing strains of the virus.

Following the KHV outbreak in 2001, Hazorea Aquatics made a strategic decision not to continue working "with" the virus but to raise virus free Koi. Following trials at a pilot project and a study of a similar site in Europe, Hazorea decided to invest in a new, entirely isolated, indoor, bio-secure intensive system that could produce KHV free Koi throughout the year in large quantities. The system consists of 2 main sub-systems:

The first is for the production of fry from specially chosen and prepared broodstock. Periodic batches of eggs are artificially spawned, and the fry are grown to a size that enables their transfer to growing tanks located in the second system. The second sub-system is situated in a specially constructed green house which has been designed to enable high density stocking of the tanks where the Koi are grown to the size required for marketing. The whole system is completely isolated from the rest of the fish hatchery and the outdoor ponds. Strict measures of disinfection and sterilization are enforced regarding personnel, instrumentation and tools in order to minimize the possibility of external sources of disease entering the system.
The system enables Hazorea to breed large quantities of disease-free Koi all year round, while minimizing the risk of contamination. The system is not sterile, meaning that the Koi are still susceptible to various parasites and bacteria that usually exist in some quantity in all water. Although the Hazorea bio-secure facility is inaccessible to animals and/or birds it should also be noted that no system can be infallible or hermetically sealed off from all outside influence. However, since all the fish in the system are always completely visible and in a controlled environment (as opposed to the fish in outside ponds), staff can respond immediately to any problem and treat it effectively. Moreover since KHV cannot be detected (without testing in laboratory conditions) in fish kept at water temperatures below 17 degrees C, the water temperature in the bio-secure system is always at the level where KHV is most active, (between 23 and 26 degrees C). The preparation and packing of fish for shipment takes place in the Bio-secure facility as well. The end result is that all the Koi from Hazorea were in a Bio-secure, enclosed quarantined environment kept at KHV sensitive temperatures - from egg to box. This enables Hazorea to provide customers with a 99.9% guarantee that the Koi supplied are virus free.

Hazorea has invested significantly in research and experimentation regarding the various factors that influence the successful growth and development of healthy, beautiful Koi in an enclosed environment. The process is on-going, and the improvement is continuous, and the feed-back from our customers, some of whom are very particular and knowledgeable, is very positive. In addition to their healthiness, body shape and colour, customers find that Hazorea Bio-secure Koi are generally more used to handling, less prone to stress, and freer of parasites.

Hazorea believes that researchers and scientists around the world are just beginning to understand the disease we call KHV and that no one can predict the long term effects of the various procedures, treatments and/or vaccines that are being used today in Koi production. However, two things are absolutely clear: First, that KHV has spread to all Koi producing countries, as well as to all destination markets. Second, that KHV is here to stay. Nobody can be sure that the existing KHV has not already, or will not in future produce mutant strains that are deadlier and/or that do not react in the same way to immunization or vaccination. Hazorea believes that the most effective way to successfully combat the disease, is to go "back to basics". Breeders, farms, distributors and retailers need to take steps to isolate and quarantine their Koi so that the disease can be contained and each link in the distribution chain can be sure that it is receiving disease free Koi. Hazorea Aquatics provides its customers with a year round bio-secure quarantine and intends to continue producing healthy, virus free fish which will not be a source of possible contamination to environments or customers' facilities.
Koi businesses and keepers around the world have been affected by KHV. In fact, no facility or pond owner anywhere, can be completely sure that he will not be the next to be infected - unless steps are taken to insure that the Koi are supplied from a virus free source. Hazorea Aquatics is confident that it's bio secure system produces stronger, healthier, disease free Koi, thus contributing to customers' security and peace of mind.

Note: The above is not intended to be a scientific assessment or in-depth description of the Bio-secure Koi facility at Hazorea. The observations included are based upon the facts as we perceive them as well as a factual description of the process.

Danny Benjamin
Hazorea Aquatics

KHV at its worst - this fish is still alive

I hope winter temperatures killed off the virus - we need a cold winter and spring (not in heated systems). If you have one, and you have any suspicions with fish loses and you have turned heat off and the problem has gone away, please do not run the water to waste. Put the waste on the garden where it can be exposed to our winter conditions, as with S.V.C. (which has been a good year - no reported cases) as our spring was too cold. Also new findings - K.H.V. can take up to 7 weeks in quarantine (under heat) to show itself. I wish I had know this 3 years ago - half our outbreaks could have been prevented.

If any thing else comes to light with this infection I will post it here.

Remember: follow up all tests in all ponds where positive.

K.H.V. in The USA
----- Original Message -----
From: vickie Morris
To: Fish Help-line
Subject: Fish Helpline

Enquiry : United States in now infected-KHV. We are trying to do
something about the hatchery - they have carriers. I know of one person that lost 80 KOI - and I am now losing mine!! They are between 23"-26" long!! I have lost 4. I have 15 this time..but they are dying

----- Original Message -----
From: Fish Help-line
To: vickie Morris
Subject: RE: Fish Helpline

Hi Vickie send me more details are you losing your own fish what are symptoms. Yes u.s.a have k.h.v bad now we have had explosion in England this year tell me about your hatchery k.h.v seems to have two forms one where fish are introduced to none infected stock they all die fast or when stock is infected but not had temperature to release virus (English type) these all die but slowly in ones and twos regards Lawrence

----- Original Message -----
From: inkypoo
To: Fish Help-line
Subject: Re: Fish Helpline - vickie morris/ohio, USA

I am exhausted - up till 1:00AM last nite - trying helplessly to save our fish - and its now 5:30 AM. Cant sleep. Here are two heartbreaking emails from me and another person that lost 70 KOI: I am sending one of my dead koi to a specialist. I purchased the four infected carriers on August 5th-as of yesterday - MY fish are infected and dying. The pond place that we went for medicene took one look at the one we brought in - and told us of our problem. NOTHING CAN BE DONE. They are japenese koi. The weather here has been between 75-95 degrees within the last two weeks, Also - here is the specialist I am sending a dead fish to: Dr. Sandra Yosha,

Here are two heartbreaking emails from me and another person that lost 70 KOI - emailing back to each other :


I am at this time DEVASTATED! We purchased 4 small Koi at Fenders on August 5th. We have a lovely waterfall pond that has approx 15 LARGE Koi in them-about 22"-26" long. VERY healthy - or should I say - WAS very healthy. We have fed the fish and cleaned the filters every day for the past 4 years
- before that we had the Koi in a smaller pond, when we lived at a different location-but brought them all with us. They are so BEAUTIFUL. White ones, orange ones, orange and white, black and gold.

We went to Fenders on August 5th- since we wanted a little larger koi to place with our large ones. The small one was floating two days ago..didn't think TOO much about it. Then TODAY - one of the large ones was floating, with red looking sores on it. Another one - the biggest of the entire bunch
- is now taking its last breaths. We rushed to Hoffman's, looking for help and some medicine. Very sadly we were told there is nothing that can be done - they have KHV. We were then told there was a couple of other people that came in - and you were one of them. They gave us your email-which you state to make contact with you, if anyone else was the victim of this.

I tried to call the Wildlife, as you did, but they are closed till Monday. PLEASEEEEEEE make contact with us, concerning this terrible situation, I have [placed our phone number at the end of this email. I would have called you - but there was no phone number on your email to Bill Hoffman. I have contacted Mr. Hoffman and left our phone number - if anyone else comes in. I also contacted Mr. Fender. Mrs. Fender was quite upset when my sister first called - Mrs. Fender thought she had hung up the phone after speaking to my sister (my sister was with us, when we made the purchase - she lives in
Kidron) but she failed to, and my sister heard the conversation between Mr. & Mrs. Fender. Mrs. Fender said, "we have another call about someone losing their fish"...Mr. Fender stated he didn't have infected fish-he gets them from Arkansas. Mrs. Fender stated she was calling the place in Arkansas - so them my sister hung up, before they knew she was still on the line. Then I called back and spoke to Mr. Fender - and he was going on that none of his fish had died-and I said no, YOURS is the carrier and they are infecting other fish. He stated he was going to get a bill of health from Arkansas - and I stated that didn't help my fish...and if he wanted them back!? He stated no, he was just returning my money (which I am not cashing any check-till I know if I am going to take another course of action). BUT that doesn't help all the other fish that I am losing, does it?? We are like you, all of ours were babies when we purchased them - and we are QUITE upset about losing them. Yes, they are only fish - but they were part of our family.

I am documenting all the days, size of the fish - and taking their pictures when they die. I am also freezing one for evidence - so it can be tested. We have also tested the water today - everything with our water is normal!

Vickie Morris & Ashley Morris

2nd person:

Oh thank God, I was so hoping someone else would get a hold of me with regard to this situation. Contact the Better Business Bureau immediately and file a report on line. Keep bothering the Department of Natural Resources also. We lost 80 of our beloved koi and Mr Fender keeps stating nothing is wrong with his fish. We have lab reports from the University of Georgia stating that they do. I want you to contact a Dr. Vickie Vaughan also, her email address is (that is 2 v's at the beginning). Her phone number is also 706-247-6274. Let her know that you purchased fish from Fender's Fish hatchery also like Bryon Jones did and see if she can give you any advice. I am in the process of consulting with a lawyer in this case, and maybe we can find some others and go against Fender's. This person shouldn't even be in business. I am furious about what happened, we lost $2,000 in out of pocket costs, but our fish are valued at $6,000-$8,000 dollars since they have grown. Can you please give me your phone number that I might be able to call you and discuss this more?

Thank you

Bryon Jones

His other email to a government official:

Here is the Department of Natural Resources phone # 330-644-2293. Just tell them Bryon Jones had complained last week about this issue and they were going to send information to their contacts in the USDA. So you know I have been trying my hardest to make contacts. Here is the email they had sent me back and my initial email.

Byron Jones:

We have contacts to the USDA but we need more information. Where did the fish come from and when, when did they die, who did the lab work to confirm the cause of death? Please send as much detail as possible.

To whom it may concern:

I just have one question, how can KHV not be a reportable disease? If a hatchery is selling infected fish, it's negligence on their part and customers stand to lose thousands of dollars worth of property, and thousands of koi. Also, if some fluke thing would happen and one of these koi got into a state lake, it would kill most if not all carp that are in those lakes. I honestly feel that a hatchery like this here in Ohio shouldn't be able to keep selling infected fish carrying this disease. I have talked to the owner of the hatchery and he is stating now that he hasn't had any problems with his fish, and supposedly doesn't know what KHV is now. We bought fish down there on July 8th, and by July 21st we started to lose our koi, and eventually lost 70 total. If damages happen like this to every customer that purchases their koi, this could cause severe consequences here in Ohio if any of these fish were to get in public waters. I do thank you for getting back with me and forwarding my information on to the USDA. I just honestly think that this virus should be taken more seriously by gov't agencies because hobbyist like myself pay for negligence on the part of hatcheries that face no consequences to selling infected fish.

Bryon Jones

----- Original Message -----
From: Fish Help-line
To: vickie Morris
Subject: RE: Fish Helpline - vickie morris/ohio, USA

Hi yes seen many times in England now it is so devastating some collections ive had to destroy had fish you would die for. Please send me your p.m results also would you allow me to publish your emails on my site if yes please send permission with sorrow lawrence


After you have visited a dealer, no matter how good they are, do not go near your pond with the same cloths or shoes you where wearing. Do not allow ANY person, including yourself, to go to your pond without washing their hands and shoe soles in warm water with mild bleach and soap if you have been near other waters or a friends pond.

DisinfectionChange your clothing before going near yours. Do not lend equipment - especially nets, koi socks or plastic bowls. A virus classes plastic and nylon and thus porous. DON'T FORGET THAT. No matter how well you wash them after, or when doing microscope scrape for friends, when they arrive ask them to remove their shoes. Of course if you go to visit them you do the same. Destroy slides and cover glasses and wipe your microscope stage down with good antibacterial wipe and wear gloves. Wrap a bin liner around you to protect contact of water to your clothing. All this sounds mean, but one mistake will cost you your fish collection. I know this - nine sites have gone down with one or all of the above mistakes and when I explain this to the pond owner and they think back, they can all remember their mistakes - but its to late then.

KHV has now been been reclassified as CY-HV1.

The following is reproduced with permission of CEFAS.

A fish with KHVWhat is Koi Herpesvirus?
Koi herpesvirus (KHV) is a viral disease of common carp Cyprinus carpio and its ornamental variants. The virus was first recorded in Israel in 1998, following large-scale mortalities of koi. More recently the virus has been isolated from a number of countries throughout the world and has been associated with an increasing number of koi mortalities in England. In all instances so far recorded, the disease has been restricted to carp and its variants.

What does KHV do?
K.H.V.The disease is believed to be highly contagious, reaching up to 90% prevalence in carp populations. This is higher than other viral carp pathogens such as Spring Viraemia of Carp (SVC). In each case the disease has occurred at water temperatures of between 17oC and 23oC. Typical symptoms of infected fish have included lethargy, erratic swimming behaviour and increased mucus production. Internally, gross pathologies such as haemorrhaging within the liver and gill necrosis have also been observed. Acting as an immuno-suppressant, fish infected with KHV can become susceptible to secondary infections, increasing the range of symptoms that develop.

How is KHV detected?
Diagnosis of KHV requires detection of the herpes-type virus. Currently this is only possible by cell tissue culture and molecular biology techniques, namely PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). To date the virus has been isolated from gills, kidney and brain tissues of affected fish. Being a herpes virus, KHV can lie dormant for long periods within tissues until triggered by a predisposing factor such as stress. This can make identification of infected fish very difficult, increasing the threat of transfer to other waters. More sensitive diagnostic techniques are required before the virus may be identified in carrier fish or hosts not showing signs of disease.

K.H.V.Why is the Environment Agency concerned about KHV?
Due to the pathogenicity of the virus and difficulties with detection the Environment Agency is very concerned about the potential impact of KHV to carp fisheries within England and Wales. The virus has already been detected from 10 carp fisheries following mortality investigations. There are no treatments for KHV, or licensed vaccines to prevent potential infections. As KHV is currently not a notifiable disease, fish infected with the virus are not restricted from importation into the UK. As such, without further controls it is possible that KHV could be spread to fisheries with fish legally imported. Due to this the Environment Agency is working with CEFAS on the best methods of screening and is adapting our controls on the movement of fish into the wild.

What is the Environment Agency doing about KHV?
In order to protect fisheries and prevent dissemination of the virus the Environment Agency has classed KHV as a novel pathogen. This restricts introductions of fish to fisheries from sites known to be infected with KHV using Section 30 of the Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act, 1975. Where a significant risk of infection exists (e.g. introduction of fish from Israel) fish will be tested for KHV using available diagnostic tools, these tests are not a guarantee but an assessment of risk. The Environment Agency are also raising awareness of the virus to fishery owners, promoting extreme caution whenever carp are being imported or stocked into fisheries.